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Glossary L...


LAN (pronounced "lann") Acronym for Local Area Network.
LANDSCAPE MODE Outputting pages in horizontal orientation as opposed to Portrait Mode.
LAPM (pronounced "L-A-P-M") An error correction protocol used in CCITT V.42.
LASER PRINTER A printer which uses laser technology to transfer data to paper, similar to a photo-copier, except that instead of copying an existing image, the image is transmitted from your computer.
LATEX Normally written as LaTex or LaTEX, it is a macro package put on top of *TEX* that implements a form of descriptive markup system in which the user specifies the function of each piece of text (heading, paragraph, footing etc) but not it's printed appearance. The source code has been released to the public domain, and is available for the Amiga with many text files for the Amiga being supplied in LaTEX format.
LAYOUT An outline that gives the general appearance of the printed page, including text and graphics.
LCA (pronounced "L-C-A") Acronym for Luminence, Chroma, Audio, a form of input for some monitors, where all three signals have separate input sockets. They can be used for Commodore-64 computers, and they can also be used with a suitable cable for displaying output from S-VHS video recorders.
LEADING The amount of additional space or "lead" between two lines of type, and dates from the days when type-setters used molten lead.
LEFT JUSTIFIED TEXT Text with a straight left margin and a ragged right margin.
LEMPEL-ZIV-WELCH Better known by the acronym "LZW" it is a data compression technique that was initially described by Terry A Welch in the June 1984 issue of IEEE's Computer Magazine. Unisys holds a patent on the procedure but the article describing the algorithm had no mention of this, and it has since become the subject of much legal confusion. The LZW procedure is simple and very well described, and soon became a popular technique for data compression, as is used by the well known GIF and TIFF image formats.
LHA A very fast archiver that is compatible with MS-DOS LhArc and LHA as well as Amiga LhArc. It is very memory efficient, stable, and reliable, and is the archiver used on Amiga Auckland's BBS. See also Arc, Archive, LhArc, and Zoo.
LHARC An archiver program originally developed for the MS-DOS environment, that uses LZHUF compression techniques to achieve maximum compression. See also Arc, Archive, LhA, and Zoo.
LIBRARY Programs already present in the operating system (in the LIBS: directory) to make use of the Amiga's special features, many of which are written by individuals rather than Commodore but made generally available so are not necessarily part of the normal distribution. These library functions may be used by application programs, so that programmers do not need to write their own. However, if the programmer uses an uncommon library, it should be included with the program and the install procedure should ensure that it or a later version is installed in the LIBS: directory.
LICENSEWARE Public Domain software that is licensed to a one or more PD libraries and is similar to shareware except that when you buy from the library you are buying the shareware and paying the license fee at the same time. The PD libraries then pass on these fees to the authors.
LIM EMS 4.0 An enhanced amalgam of the original EMS and EEMS standards that takes its name from the three major companies involved (Lotus, Intel and Microsoft) and provides up to 2048 pages each of 4K giving 32Mb maximum memory. This demanded that any add-on memory totally implemented the new standard, and didn't just try and emulate it, and many problems arose.
LINDA CHIP A new custom chip, part of the AAA chipset,  that functioned as a display line buffer, assembling data lines and feeding them to Monica, thereby providing very quick transfer of large volumes of display information. 
LINE SPACING The spacing between lines of text. In DTP programs this can be fixed at a specific size, or relative to the font size, or in terms of leading. Note Professional Page calculates both leading and line spacing from the baseline to the baseline of any two lines of text.
LINE WEIGHT The thickness of lines used in structured graphics and box frames.
LINKED TEXT BOXES A facility found in many DTP programs, where a series of boxes containing text are linked together to form a document, and the text flows from one box to the next. If the size of a box is changed, the text moves from one box to the other automatically.
LISA CHIP The custom chip responsible for the video output, and is used to maintain the display on the VDU, and controls the resolution, colours, sprites, text lines etc. On the A1200 and A4000 machines this chip superceded the Denise chip which performs the same functions, but Lisa is more powerful. However, this too has been superceded by Monica in the AAA chipset.
LOCAL AREA NETWORK  (acronym  "LAN") The combination of hardware and software that allows users' connected PC's, terminals, or workstations to share information and computing resources such as data storage, software, printers, scanners, or even other computers.
LOCAL BUS Peripheral cards such as sound and video cards connect to the motherboard of a computer via the expansion bus, and the term "Local Bus" means that the processor has direct access to that bus, and therefore any expansion card connected to it. Unlike the ISA bus the VL-Bus and PCI Bus standards both support this mode of operation and therefore are considerably faster than ISA when using high speed devices such as video cards.
LOWERCASE Non-capitalised letters of a font, obtained by pressing the keyboard keys while neither of the SHIFT keys (up-arrow keys above the Alt keys) are being pressed and the red light of the Caps Lock keys is off.
LUMA-KEYING The process of using specific luminence information within a video signal to control the replacement of the image by alternate video information, such as static images, moving images or computer graphics. It is not as concise as Chroma-keying because the brightness is much more difficult to control, but it does provide a useful alternative in circumstances where the use of Chroma-key is impractical, such as a previously recorded video where the background is not suitable.
LUMA Refers to the brightness information within a video signal, and is the same as "Luminence". (see also CHROMA or CHROMINANCE, COMPOSITE VIDEO and Y/C.
LUMINENCE Refers to the brightness information within a video signal, and is the same as "Luma". (see also CHROMA or CHROMINANCE, COMPOSITE VIDEO and Y/C.
LZW (pronounced "L-Z-W") Acronym for Lempel-Ziv-Welch.

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Revised: September 19, 2005.