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Glossary I...


I International symbol on an On/Off switch to indicate the ON position.
I/O Acronym for Input/Output, although it is often confused with the I/O used on computers etc to denote the On/Off switch. More recently a symbol of an O with an I in the middle has been used.
IC (pronounced I-C) Acronym for Integrated Circuit.
ICON A graphic element which represents some device or object such as a disk, program, drawer, etc. The Workbench uses these to manipulate and organise data. The icon image, and parameters for processing a particular object are contained within files with the same name as the object, but suffixed with ".info", hence they are known as Info files.
ICQ A program that can be used to send interactive messages to other users over the Internet, and derives its name from the words "I Seek You". With additional equipment users can even talk to one another or send live video images.
IDE (pronounced "I-D-E") Acronym for Integrated Drive Electronics.
IEEE  (pronounced "I-triple-E") Acronym for Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers.
IFF (pronounced "I-F-F") Acronym for Interchange File Format, although an international reference on technical and computer terms lists only "Identify, Friend or Foe".
IFF-8SVX (pronounced "I-F-F-8-S-V-X") Acronym for 8 bit Sampled Voice, often written as simply 8SVX.
IFF-ILBM (pronounced "I-F-F-I-L-B-M") Acronym for InterLeaved Bit Map, often written as simply ILBM.
ILBM (pronounced "I-L-B-M") Acronym for InterLeaved Bit Map, more properly written as IFF-ILBM.
IMAGE PROCESSOR Hardware or software that enables the characteristics of any image to be altered using a range of effects such as changing colours, image formats, brightness, contrast, negative images, outline images and so on. Most of the image processors are open-ended, in that new effects can be added at any time. Popular Amiga software includes ASGD's Art Department Pro, and GVP's ImageFX.
INCLUDE FILES A set of files provided by Commodore which provide all the offsets needed to access the AmigaDOS system library routines and the formats of all the system structures. It is virtually impossible to program in Assembler or C without them.
INDUSTRY STANDARD ARCHITECTURE The original 16-bit PC AT bus standard used by MS-DOS PC's, which limited the communication speed between expansion cards, (video cards, hard drive controllers etc) to 8MHz no matter what speed the motherboard was running at. The result was a restrictive bottleneck for data waiting to go to and from the processor resulting in slower performance. This has since been superceded by the VL-Bus and PCI Bus standards.
INDUSTRY STANDARD BUS (abbreviation "ISB") The long established bus architecture used on MS-DOS, machines which is restricted to 8 bits at a speed of only 8MHz, even on much faster 16 bit machines.
INFO FILES These are files which use the ".info" suffix after their names, and store the information blocks for the associated Workbench files which have the same name apart from the suffix. These blocks contain the icon image that appears on the screen, the protect flags for the file, the default tool (where appropriate), the tool types (where appropriate) and various other bits of information such as where the icon should appear in the window.
INFORMATION SUPERHIGHWAY The term used to describe the process by which services such as Internet, Video on Demand, Home Shopping, etc are supplied. It requires high-speed communications lines and generally very powerful computers.
INPUT/OUTPUT (abbreviation I/O) A term used to describe any device capable of Inputting information to a computer or Outputting information from a computer. Keyboards, screens, printers, disks etc are all considered to be Input/Output devices.
INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS Better known by their acronym IEEE, this group formed a committee back in the 70's to setup networking standards. It came up with recommendations, collectively known as 802, which covers carrier sensing multiple bus with collision detection (802.2),carrier sensing multiple bus (802.3) token bus passing (802.4) and token passing ring sharing (802.5).
INTEGERS These are simply whole numbers which have no fractional or decimal part.
INTEGRATED CIRCUIT A group of interconnected electronic components fabricated on a tiny chip of silicon, which form a functioning electronic circuit. Using the latest manufacturing techniques these "chips", as they commonly known, may have as many as one million transistors and other components on a single chip.
INTEGRATED DRIVE ELECTRONICS An interface to attach hard drives to PC's, where the electronics of the controller are integrated with the drive instead of on a separate PC card.
INTEGRATED SERVICES DIGITAL NETWORK A set of recommended standards for rapid transmission of voice, data, and images over simple twisted-pair cables.
INTERCHANGE FILE FORMAT A file standard, developed mainly by Electronic Arts, to facilitate the interchange of graphic, sound, text and various other files amongst programs from different sources (thus you can load a graphic from say Aegis Images into Deluxe Paint). This is part of the reason that the Amiga is such a versatile machine.
INTERLACE A video display technique commonly used on television sets and some computers where a video picture is split into odd and even scan lines. Instead of the raster drawing every line on every pass, it draws the odd lines on one pass and the even lines on another, thereby taking two passes to complete an image. PAL running at 50Hz would take 1/25th of a second to draw a complete screen, while NTSC running at 60Hz would take 1/30th of a second. Unfortunately it gives rise to "flicker" which is more noticeable on a static computer screen than a moving TV picture.
• Amiga:
High resolution screens were typically interlaced, which caused the "flicker", but it could be greatly reduced by choice of colours and contrast, and by fitting a plastic filter over the VDU. There is also a board for the A2000/A2500 called a "Display Enhancer" or "Flicker Fixer", which removes it completely but at some expense, while the A3000 utilises a built-in but switchable display enhancer. The A1200 and A4000 make it even simpler, as the Alice chip can be used to "de-interlace" the display image. However, it must be noted that if you are outputting to video, you should use the interlace mode to obtain the best picture.
INTERLEAVED BIT MAP One of the data formats supported by the IFF standard that provides for a 2-dimensional raster or bit-mapped image in colour thus allowing transfer of images from one program to another. Images using this format may have suffixes of ".bsh", ".brush", ".ham", ".iff", ".ilbm", ".lbm" or ".sham".
INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS ORGANISATION  (acronym "ISO) The standards body responsible for the Open Systems Interconnect or OSI model that is being adopted as a standard for network communications around the world.
INTERNET Probably the largest network in the world, linking thousands of computers and millions of people all over the world, with an additional one million people joining each month. The result of a networking evolution involving the original DARPANET, ARPANET, then NSFNET, Internet can be many things to many people. However it shouldn't be confused with other networks such as Fidonet which, whilst they may look similar, are very different.
INTERNET PROTOCOL (acronym "IP") The standard setup by DARPA that takes care of addressing packets of data across the Internet so that a router knows where to send the data when it receives it. These packets are small, with a limit of 1,500 characters. Because of this restriction, and the fact that packets can be lost or get corrupted during transmission, another layer in the network is required. This is where the Transmission Control Protocol or TCP comes into play.
INTERNET RELAY CHAT (acronym "IRC") A facility available on the Internet if you feel like communicating with real people in real places in real time. Using IRC as it is known, you could hold a conversation with a group of people situated anywhere in the world. Think of it as a sort of CB or HAM radio on the Internet, but with thousands of channels. If it's not real time chat you want, but rather a debate, discussion, argument, information or just plain drivel, then you should consider Usenet instead.
INTUITION A part of the Operating system which provides the graphic elements which the user can manipulate the system. It is a set of software routines that all Amiga programs can use to show gadgets, menus, requestors and icons, as well as to handle keyboard input. The use of Intuition allows for a consistent interface for the user across the range of Amiga applications.
IP (pronounced "I-P") Acronym for Internet Protocol.
IRC (pronounced "I-R-C") Acronym for Internet Relay Chat.
ISA (pronounced "I-S-A") Acronym Industry Standard Architecture.
ISB (pronounced "I-S-B") Acronym for Industry Standard Bus.
ISDN (pronounced "I-S-D-N") Acronym for Integrated Services Digital Network.
ISO (pronounced "eye-so) Acronym for International Standards Organisation.
ISO9660 (pronounced "eye-so-9-6-6-0") An international standard for CD-ROM data layout, closely associated with the High Sierra format, but with a few minor changes throughout. ISO9660 is a robust format allowing it to be used on many diverse platforms.
ITALIC Text modified to slant to the right, for example: Italic Output.
ITU-T (pronounced "I-T-U-dash-T") Acronym for the International Telecommunication Union-Telecommunications sector, a worldwide standards body previously known as CCITT, that works closely with other standards bodies, particularly the *ISO*, and is responsible for defining most of the communication protocols that we use today, according to the following list:
V.17 - comms protocol for 150 bits per second
V.21 - comms protocol for 300 bits per second
V.22 - comms protocol for 1200 bits per second
V.22bis - comms protocol for 2400 bits per second
V.27ter - comms protocol
V.29 - co
mms protocol
V.32 - comms protocol for 4800/9600 bits per second
V.32bis - comms protocol for 7200/12,000/14,400 bits per second
V.32terbo - comms protocol for 21,600 bits per second
V.34 - comms protocol for 28,800 bits per second
V.42 - error correction protocols MNP 2 to 4 and LAPM
V.42bis - error correction protocols MNP 2 to 4, LAPM and BTLZ
V-Fast Class - an unofficial forerunner of the emerging V.34 protocol.

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Revised: September 19, 2005.