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Glossary 0-9


*NIX A generic term to indicate one of the many flavours of the Linux and Unix operating systems. The asterisk (*) is used by Linux and Unix as a wild card character.
µA1 ("Micro A-one") Abbreviation for Micro AmigaOne.
1 BIT COLOUR A computer display mode where only one bit is used for each pixel on the screen. If the bit is "0" the corresponding pixel is turned off, whereas if the bit is "1" the corresponding pixel is turned on. Strictly speaking this is monochrome mode as it does not provide any colour information and would normally take its colour from the screen itself (pale blue, green and amber on a dark background were common).
• Amiga: Uses colour registers instead; if the bit is "0" it uses the colour from colour register 0; if it is "1" it uses the colour from colour register 1 and these could be any colour at all, not just monochrome.
• Mac: Monochrome as used by the original Macs
• PC: As used by the original PC's until the introduction of CGA graphics
1G An abbreviation for the first generation of digital mobile phones that use the GSM standard.
16 BIT MEMORY RAM that is processed by the CPU (i.e. read or written) 16-bits (4 bytes) at a time.
• Amiga: This is the maximum that the 68000 chip can handle, so to read 8 bytes of data, it must make two accesses, each of four bytes. If 8-bit memory was accessed the 68000 chip would need to make four accesses, each of two bytes. On the other hand if the 16 bit memory was accessed by the 68020, 68030 or 68040 chips which can access 32 bits at a time, they would still need to make two accesses each of 16 bits, thereby slowing down the speed that the processor chip can run. This is the memory required for the A500, A600, A1000, A2000 and B2000 machines without accelerator cards.
• Mac: The original Macs were similar to the Amiga in that they used the same 68000 chip
• PC:  The original PC's using the 8086 through to the 80286 also used 16 bit memory.
1080p (pronounced "10-80-p") The digital television broadcast format which utilises 1420 x 1080 pixels in 4:3 format and 1920 x 1080 pixels in 16:9 format.
24 BIT COLOUR A computer display mode where 24 bits are used to control the colour for each pixel on the screen giving a maximum of 16,777,216 colours, and due to the realistic images produced is often referred to as "true colour". This is normally accomplished by the addition of special graphics cards.
• Amiga: The colour control method used by all Amigas that have the Andrea based graphics chipset, although an increasing number of special colour cards are being released for the Amiga, such as EGS Spectrum, Harlequin, IV24, Picasso II, Piccolo, OpalVision, Rembrandt, Retina, etc, that can display any of up to 2^24 or 16,777,216 colours. The latter cards do not use the Amiga chipset, but output directly to the screen, although some can also output the Amiga chipset image.
286 (pronounced "2-8-6") A commonly used abbreviation for the Intel 80286 family of processors.
2G An abbreviation for the second generation of digital mobile phones that use the GSM standard plus had the added benefit of WAP technology for accessing specially prepared web sites.
2.5G An abbreviation for next generation digital mobile phones that use the GPRS and HSCSD technologies to deliver faster downloads.
3-D MODELLING Where images can be drawn by defining the 3 visual aspects (top, side and front). These can then be rotated in any direction before the final image is rendered as a 3D object complete with lighting highlights, reflections and shadows, etc. Requires considerable computing power and memory.
3-W An abbreviation for WWW.
3G An abbreviation for third generation of digital mobile phones that use a combination of technologies including UMTS to deliver highspeed broadband connections.
32 BIT COLOUR A computer display mode where 32 bits are used to control the colour for each pixel on the screen giving a maximum of 16,777,216 colours, the same as 24 BIT COLOUR, but with an additional 8 bits which are used as "Alpha" control registers, providing transparency or stencil control rather than colour, and have different uses depending on the colour card being used.
32 BIT MEMORY RAM that is processed by the CPU (i.e. read or written) 32-bits (8 bytes) at a time.
• Amiga: This is the maximum that the 68020, 68030, and 68040 chips could handle so to read 8 bytes of data, they needed to make only one access. However using 32 bit memory for the 68000 chip would not help, because it could only read 16 bits at a time anyway. This the memory required for the A1200, A2500, A3000, A4000 and machines fitted with accelerator cards.
386 (pronounced "3-8-6") A commonly used abbreviation for the Intel 80386 family of processors.
4004 (pronounced "4-double-oh-4") The very first single chip CPU produced by Intel in November 1971 was a 4-bit processor meant for a calculator. It ran at 108KHz and processed data in 4 bits, but its instructions were 8 bits long, and it could address 4K of memory (in the form of a 4-level stack). It had 46 instructions, using 2,300 transistors and ran at 740KHz.
4040 (pronounced "4-oh-4-oh") An enhanced version of the 4004 produced by Intel in 1972 came with an 8-level stack giving up to 8K of memory, and introduced interrupt abilities.
486 (pronounced "4-8-6") A commonly used abbreviation for the Intel 80486 family of processors.
576i (pronounced "5-7-6-i") The analog television broadcast format when converted to digital which utilises 754 x 576 pixels in 4:3 format and 1024 x 576 pixels in 16:9 format.
586 (pronounced "5-8-6") Started off as an abbreviation for the Intel 80586 family of processors, but has lost usage over time and is now more commonly known as the Pentium family of processors.
5-pin DIN 180 A 5 pin connector devised under the DIN standard that has 5 pins arranged in a 180° circular pattern and surrounded by a metal shield. This type of connector was used widely for Audio systems manufactured in Europe, MIDI instruments, PC keyboards, and other specialized equipment.
5-pin DIN 270 A 5 pin connector devised under the DIN standard that has 5 pins arranged in a 270° circular pattern and surrounded by a metal shield. This type of connector was used widely for other specialized equipment.
6 BIT COLOUR A display mode where 6 bits are used to control the colour for each pixel on the screen. 
• Amiga: This is the colour control method used by all Amigas which have the Agnus based graphics chipset, such as the A500, A600, B2000 etc. Of the 6 bits, 5 are used for colour control giving 2^5 or 32 colours but since the Amiga uses colour registers these values refer to them instead. In this way, the Amiga can display up to 32 colours from a total palette of 4096 colours. The 6th bit is used by the Extra Half-brite mode to give 64 colours where the second 32 are darker shades of the first 32, or HAM mode, where the colour is determined from the preceding pixel giving 4096 colours on the screen simultaneously.
64 BIT COLOUR Yes, some products do claim to use it, claiming trillions of colours that result in a much richer palette and subtler graduations on screen, or so the marketing hype would have us believe. The current 24 & 32 bit colour systems do not provide luminosity characteristics, e.g. day-glow colours, so there is the prospect of more comprehensive colour control, but as the human eye can distinguish only about 12 millions colours, it may seem rather pointless to create trillions that we can't see.
64 BIT MEMORY RAM that is processed by the CPU (i.e. read or written) 64-bits (16 bytes) at a time.
68000 ("pronounced 68 thousand") The first of the Motorola 32-bit processor chips, although externally it used a 16-bit interface. It could address up to 16MB of RAM and execute .75 MIPS on an 8MHz machine, and was the CPU chip used by the Amiga, Apple Macintosh, and some Atari machines.
• Amiga: The processor chip supplied with the A500, A1000, A2000 and B2000 machines running at 7.14 MHz.
• Mac: The processor chip supplied with the original Macs running at 8MHz
68008 (pronounced 6-8 double-oh 8") A cheaper version of the 68000 chip, as used in the Sinclair QL. It had a 16-bit CPU, but only an 8-bit data bus.
68010 (pronounced 68-oh-1-oh") A special version of the 68000 chip designed to multi-task. The processor acts as if it were a number of 68000 processors for running each program. A few bugs were fixed in the "supervisor" mode. It was also slightly faster than the 68000.
• Amiga: The processor chip was available as an upgrade for A500 users but very few were sold because of the additional cost and minimal performance gain.
68012(pronounced 68-oh-1-2") An enhanced version  68010 chip, that fixed a few bugs in the design
• Amiga: Never used
68020(pronounced 68-oh-2-oh") A full 32-bit version of the 68000 chip. The full 68020 increased the amount of memory usable to 4GB, and introduced an instruction cache to increase the speed of operations.
68020EC(pronounced 68-oh-2-oh-E-C") A cut-down version of the 68020 chip, the EC (Embedded Controller) chip was able to address only 16MB of RAM, and did not contain cache memory. Motorola originally designed it for use in Video players and washing machines 
• Amiga: The processor chip supplied with the A1200 machines running at 14 MHz, and was also used on a number of accelerator cards for the A500, A500+ and A600.
68030(pronounced 68-oh-3-oh") An upgraded version of the 68020 chip with larger cache memory. It also added a Memory Management Unit (MMU) and a Floating Point Unit (FPU). This allowed computers to use virtual memory and had a maximum speed of 50MHz
• Amiga: The processor chip supplied with the A3000 and A3000T machines running at 16MHz and 25MHz.
68030EC(pronounced 68-oh-3-oh-E-C") A cut-down version of the 68030 chip which omits the Memory Management Unit (MMU) and Floating Point Unit (FPU).
• Amiga: The processor chip supplied with the A4000/030 machines running at 25MHz.
68040(pronounced 68-oh-4-oh") A vastly improved version of the 68030 chip that contained MMU, FPU and larger instruction and data caches built-in. 
• Amiga: The processor chip supplied with the A4000/040 machines running at 25MHz.
68040EC(pronounced 68-oh-4-oh-E-C") A cut-down version of the 68040 chip which omits the Memory Management Unit (MMU) and Floating Point Unit (FPU). 
• Amiga: The processor chip supplied with the A4000/040 machines running at 25MHz.
68050 (pronounced 68-oh-5-oh") A processor chip designed to be the next step after the 68040, but development was eclipsed by the evolving 68060 chip that went into production sooner than expected.
68060 (pronounced 68-oh-6-oh") The last in 680x0 series. This processor chip is almost 100 times faster than the 68000 and three times as fast as the 68040. It had a number of advancements over the 68040 such as the fully static design which switched off individual parts of the processor when it was not in use, thus saving power and creating less heat.
• Amiga: The processor chip supplied with the A4000/030 machines running at 25MHz.
68070 (pronounced 68-oh-7-oh") Not the next generation of 680x0 processor, but one than ran even slower than the 68000. Although it is compatible with the 68000, it was made by Philips not Motorola. The SCC68070 features two serial ports, a Memory Management Unit (MMU) and a Direct Memory Access (DMA) controller. The only machine to use it is the Philips CDi machine.
68080 (pronounced 68-oh-8-oh") No such processor chip was ever produced or planned.
 
• Amiga: A misunderstanding by many Amiga enthusiasts led to the belief that Amiga International were attempting to persuade Motorola to continue their 680x0 series. This was due to comments made by Petro Tyschtschenko at the Cologne 1997 show that it would be easier to develop a market if such a processor existed.
6-pin DIN 270 A 6 pin connector designed under the DIN standard that has 5 pins arranged in a 270° circular pattern with an extra pin in the centre and surrounded by a metal shield. This type of connector was used widely for other specialized equipment.
8 BIT COLOUR A display mode where 8 bits are used to control the colour for each pixel on the screen giving a maximum of 256 colours. This is the minimum colour control method used by most computers.
• Amiga: Those that use the Alice based graphics chipset, such as the A1200, A4000 etc use 8 bit colour, but not Agnus based Amigas which use only 6 bit colour. It should be noted that on Alice based Amigas the 256 colours are from a total palette of 16,777,216 colours and they can also display 262,144 colours simultaneously in HAM-8 mode.
8 BIT MEMORY RAM that is processed by the CPU (i.e. read or written) 8-bits (2 bytes) at a time. This is the maximum that the CPU chips inside early MS-DOS and C64 machines could handle. Later machines used 16 bit memory while current machines use 32 or 64 bit bit memory.
8 BIT SAMPLED VOICE Otherwise known as IFF-8SVX, or simply 8SVX, it is a commonly used format for storing sound samples. Data can be stored in two ways - the first is called the "one-shot" sound, which is typically used for sound effects, speech prompts, etc designed to be played once and at the same frequency, while the second is called "Multi-Octave IFF" (normally 3 or 5 octaves) and is designed for musical applications that require multiple octaves of sound, along with a waveform that is designed to be repeated as long as the note is to be played back.
8SVX Simplified acronym for  IFF-8SVX which is an acronym for 8 Bit Sampled Voice.
8008 (pronounced "8-double-oh-8")oubl") The first microprocessor chip produced by Intel during the 1970s that had the potential to drive a computer.

80286((pronounced "8-oh-286")

An interim chip produced in 1982 to replace the slow-performing 8088 and take the pressure off until the 80386 chip was ready. It was a true 16/16 bit chip but it was never intended to be used for long, so lacked much on the part of enhancements apart from slightly improved speed running at clock speeds of 8MHz, 10MHz and 12MHz, which was nearly 20 times faster than the 8088.
80287 (pronounced "8-oh-2-8-7") The 80287 was a maths co-processor for use with the Intel 80286 processor chip, which could be added if number crunching, such as complex spreadsheets, was required.
80386 (pronounced "8-oh-386")"8-oh-3-8-6") The 80386 family of chips offered more performance than the 80286s they replaced, largely through processor speed increases. The 80386 did not offer the very large improvements over the 80286 that the 80286 did over the 8088, but unlike it predecessors the 80386 didn't place any artificial constraints on program developers.
80386DLC (pronounced "8-oh-3-8-6-D-L-C") An 80386DX CPU tarted up to work and behave like an 80486, it was done as a cost-saving attempt, somewhat akin to putting a V8 motor in a mini.
80386DX (pronounced "8-oh-3-8-6-D-X") The Intel 80386DX introduced in 1985 was the first true 32-bit processor used on the PC platform. Its internal register size was increased to 32 bits, as was its data and address buses, doubling data path width to the processor and increasing addressable memory to 4 GB theoretical. The chip was available in clock speeds of  16MHz, 20MHz, 25MHz, and 33MHz, and included a maths co-processor built-in.
80386SL (pronounced "8-oh-3-8-6-S-X") A variation of the Intel 80386SX, introduced in 1990 which had low power consumption and formed the basis of the earliest portable computers.
80386SX (pronounced "8-oh-3-8-6-S-X") A cut-down version of the Intel 80386DX, introduced in 1989 from which some of the advanced memory handling features were excluded for cost-saving reasons.
80387 (pronounced "8-oh-3-8-7") The 80387 was a maths co-processor for use with the Intel 80386SX processor chip, which could be added if number crunching, such as complex spreadsheets, was required.
80486 (pronounced "8-oh-4-8-6") The 80486 family brought GUIs to the mainstream on PCs, and was considered to be the minimum processor that was "usable" for running an operating system like Microsoft Windows. AMD and Cyrix did produce clones of the original Intel 80486 processors, but they were not a big player in the 486 clone market until the higher-speed DX2 and DX4 processors.
80486DX (pronounced "8-oh-4-8-6-D-X") The Intel 80486DX released in April 1989 was the first member of the 486 family and gave a very significant increase in power over the 80386DX processor, in fact, far more proportionately than the 386 did over the 286. An 80486DX processor provided approximately 100-150% more performance than a 80386DX of the same clock speed. It was still a 32-bit processor with 32-bit data and address buses, just like the 80386DX, but had many internal improvements, such as:
The chip could execute instructions in less time than earlier processors.
The execution pipeline was increased by one step.
It was the first to incorporate level 1 cache on the chip, to reduce the number of accesses to memory.
It included an integrated math coprocessor 
It introduced a burst mode to reduce wait time on memory accesses.
In general, 486 motherboards were more efficient than 386 ones, and used secondary cache as well.
80486DX2 (pronounced "8-oh-4-8-6-D-X-2") The Intel 80486DX2 introduced in March 1992 was the first chip to use "clock doubling" technology, where the processor ran at a faster speed than the memory bus it talked to. This was done to allow the processor speed to be increased without having to deal with the much more difficult task of increasing motherboard speed. Chips that run at faster than memory bus speed gave improved performance but at a diminishing rate as the multiplier increased, due to the processor waiting for data from memory. Intel produced 50 and 66 MHz DX2 chips, intended for use in 25 and 33 MHz system bus systems. Other than clock speed, the 80486DX2 was virtually identical to the 80486DX. AMD and Cyrix not only cloned the 66 MHz DX2 processor, they took Intel one step further with the 80486DX2-80, running at 80 MHz. This uses a 40 MHz system bus, which isn't a speed that is normally used by Intel systems but that became more popular late in the 486 life cycle due to the performance increase it gives over 33 MHz bus systems. In addition, the AMD (enhanced version) and Cyrix chips have several advantages over the Intel chips (they had the benefit of developing them well after Intel):
80486DX3 (pronounced "8-oh-4-8-6-D-X-3") The Intel 80486DX3 was to have been one step better than the 80486DX2 running at 2.5 times the memory bus, but the product was never shipped, being superceded by the 80486DX4.
80486DX4 (pronounced "8-oh-4-8-6-D-X-4") The Intel 80486DX4 introduced in 1994 continued the trend started by the 80486DX2 and 080486DX3 toward faster clock speed processors on slower motherboards running at three times the speed of the memory bus (not four times as might be implied by the name.) The 80486DX4 ran at two speeds: 75 MHz (for the 25 MHz bus) and 100 MHz (for the 33 MHz bus), with the 100 being by far the most popular. In order to keep power and heat to a manageable level the voltage of these chips was reduced to 3.3 volts. AMD and Cyrix also made a 120 MHz version that ran on a 40 MHz bus, and supported write-back cache while the Intel did not; although Intel doubled its level 1 cache to 16 KB. 
80486DX5 (pronounced "8-oh-4-8-6-D-X-5") The 80486DX4-100 was the fastest 486 processor made by Intel before they decided to stop development and concentrate on the Pentium. AMD took clock multiplying one increment further with what it calls the "5x86" chip. Despite the implication that it was a fifth-generation chip, it was not--it was a high speed, clock-quadrupled 486 processor, that ran in 486 motherboards. The AMD 5x86 was made available in one speed only, 133 MHz, for use in 33 MHz motherboards. The processor ran at four times the system clock and fitted into a Socket 3. Since having a clock multiplier of four was not part of the original Socket 3 design, AMD made the 5x86 look for a 2x setting from the motherboard and interpret that as four times instead. In other words, to use the 5x86 you had to set the motherboard to the 2x setting which caused the 5x86 to run at 4x. AMD called this chip the "5x86-P75" because it offered performance comparable to low-end fifth-generation chips. In fact, it was comparable in integer performance to a 75 MHz Pentium. It was also called the 80486DX5-133, which was a more accurate reflection of what the chip really was. Architecturally, the chip is virtually identical to the 80486DX4, except that it matched Intel's 16 KB level 1 cache (the AMD 80486DX4 had only 8 KB). 
80486SX(pronounced "8-oh-4-8-6-S-X") The Intel 80486SX introduced in April 1991 was the same chip as the 80486DX but without the integrated math coprocessor (fpu). This is not the same as the difference between the SX and DX versions of the 80386; neither had a coprocessor and the 80386SX had narrower data and address buses than the 80386DX. The 80486DX and 80486SX have the same bus widths. Since it is the same chip except for the floating point processor, the 80486SX had the same advantages over the 80386 that the 80486DX did. Note that the 80486SX was made available in slower clock speeds than the 80486DX, coming in 16MHz, 20MHz, 25MHz and 33 MHz versions, while the DX was 25MHz, 33MHz and 50 MHz. However the 80486SX could be upgraded using a "math coprocessor" called the 80487SX.
80487SX(pronounced "8-oh-4-8-7-S-X") The Intel 80487SX coprocessor that was intended for use with the 80486SX was in fact a full-blown 80486DX processor. In fact, when inserted, the 80487SX shut down the 80486SX and performed both integer and floating point operations. It made no difference from a performance standpoint but is indicative of the way Intel behaved when faced with lowered priced competition.
80586 (pronounced "8-oh-5-8-6") Intel were originally planning to use 80586 as the name for the processor chip that replaced the 80486 but were forced to change the naming of their chips when a US court held that they could not copyright numbers, hence the name Pentium© was born. This didn't stop other chip manufacturers calling their equivalent chips the 586, but this term has since stopped as well.
8080 (pronounced "8-oh-80") A development of Intel's original 8008 chip, the 8080 released in 1974 runnning at 2MHz was the first microprocessor upon which the first personal computers were built. Popular Electronics, in their January 1975 issue, described how to construct a relatively low-cost computer that was called the Altair which used this chip. It could only be programmed by flicking switches on the front, and re-programmed every time you wanted to use it. However, the response was overwhelming and surprised all concerned.
8086  (pronounced "8-oh-86") A development of the Intel 8080 chip introduced in 1976, the 8086 had a 16 bit architecture with clock speeds of 5MHz, 8MHz and 10MHz, and became the basis for IBM's move into the Personal Computer revolution in 1981. In an attempt to speed up processing aat reduced cost the 8088 quickly replaced it.
8087 (pronounced "8-oh-87") The 8087 was a floating-point maths co-processor for use with the Intel 8080/8086 processor chip, which could be added if number crunching, such as complex spreadsheets, was required.
8088 (pronounced "8-oh-88") The continuing development of the Intel 8080, the 8088 released in 1979 running at speeds between 4.77MHz and 8MHz offered more speed, but were still rather slow by modern standards and was little more than an interim chip while Intel developed the 80286 and 80386 chips. Like the chips that came before it, it was 16/8 bit processor and the result was a tremendous traffic jam as the information hit the outside world, and limited by its 640K address bus.

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